arXiv:1605.07524 Date: submitted by
2017-03-24 Author(s): Maria Apostolaki
, Aviv Zohar
, Laurent Vanbever
As the most successful cryptocurrency to date, Bitcoin constitutes a target of choice for attackers. While many attack vectors have already been uncovered, one important vector has been left out though: attacking the currency via the Internet routing infrastructure itself. Indeed, by manipulating routing advertisements (BGP hijacks) or by naturally intercepting traffic, Autonomous Systems (ASes) can intercept and manipulate a large fraction of Bitcoin traffic. This paper presents the first taxonomy of routing attacks and their impact on Bitcoin, considering both small-scale attacks, targeting individual nodes, and large-scale attacks, targeting the network as a whole. While challenging, we show that two key properties make routing attacks practical: (i) the efficiency of routing manipulation; and (ii) the significant centralization of Bitcoin in terms of mining and routing. Specifically, we find that any network attacker can hijack few (<100) BGP prefixes to isolate ~50% of the mining power---even when considering that mining pools are heavily multi-homed. We also show that on-path network attackers can considerably slow down block propagation by interfering with few key Bitcoin messages. We demonstrate the feasibility of each attack against the deployed Bitcoin software. We also quantify their effectiveness on the current Bitcoin topology using data collected from a Bitcoin supernode combined with BGP routing data. The potential damage to Bitcoin is worrying. By isolating parts of the network or delaying block propagation, attackers can cause a significant amount of mining power to be wasted, leading to revenue losses and enabling a wide range of exploits such as double spending. To prevent such effects in practice, we provide both short and long-term countermeasures, some of which can be deployed immediately.
 “A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform ,” https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper
 “Bitcoin Blockchain Statistics,” https://blockchain.info/
 “bitnodes,” https://bitnodes.21.co/
 “Bitnodes. Estimating the size of Bitcoin network,” https://bitnodes.21.co/
 “CAIDA Macroscopic Internet Topology Data Kit.” https://www.caida.org/data/internet-topology-data-kit/
 “Dyn Research. Pakistan hijacks YouTube.” http://research.dyn.com/2008/02/pakistan-hijacks-youtube-1/
 “FALCON,” http://www.falcon-net.org/
 “FIBRE,” http://bitcoinfibre.org/
 “Litecoin ,” https://litecoin.org
 “RIPE RIS Raw Data,” https://www.ripe.net/data-tools/stats/ris/ris-raw-data
 “Routeviews Prefix to AS mappings Dataset (pfx2as) for IPv4 and IPv6.” https://www.caida.org/data/routing/routeviews-prefix2as.xml
 “Scapy.” http://www.secdev.org/projects/scapy/
 “The Relay Network,” http://bitcoinrelaynetwork.org/
 “ZCash,” https://z.cash/
 A. M. Antonopoulos, “The bitcoin network,” in Mastering Bitcoin. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2013, ch. 6.
 H. Ballani, P. Francis, and X. Zhang, “A Study of Prefix Hijacking and Interception in the Internet,” ser. SIGCOMM ’07. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007, pp. 265–276.
 A. Boldyreva and R. Lychev, “Provable Security of S-BGP and Other Path Vector Protocols: Model, Analysis and Extensions,” ser. CCS ’12. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2012, pp. 541–552.
 J. Bonneau, A. Miller, J. Clark, A. Narayanan, J. A. Kroll, and E. W. Felten, “Sok: Research perspectives and challenges for bitcoin and cryptocurrencies,” in Security and Privacy (SP), 2015 IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, 2015, pp. 104–121.
 P. Bosshart, D. Daly, G. Gibb, M. Izzard, N. McKeown, J. Rexford, C. Schlesinger, D. Talayco, A. Vahdat, G. Varghese et al., “P4: Programming protocol-independent packet processors,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 87–95, 2014.
 C. Decker and R. Wattenhofer, “Information propagation in the bitcoin network,” in Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2013 IEEE Thirteenth International Conference on. IEEE, 2013, pp. 1–10.
 ——, Bitcoin Transaction Malleability and MtGox. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 313–326. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11212-1_18
 M. Edman and P. Syverson, “As-awareness in tor path selection,” in Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, ser. CCS ’09, 2009.
 I. Eyal, “The miner’s dilemma,” in 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE, 2015, pp. 89–103.
 I. Eyal and E. G. Sirer, “Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable,” in Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Springer, 2014, pp. 436–454.
 N. Feamster and R. Dingledine, “Location diversity in anonymity networks,” in WPES, Washington, DC, USA, October 2004.
 J. Garay, A. Kiayias, and N. Leonardos, “The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications,” in Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT 2015. Springer, 2015, pp. 281–310.
 A. Gervais, G. O. Karama, V. Capkun, and S. Capkun, “Is bitcoin a decentralized currency?” IEEE security & privacy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 54–60, 2014.
 A. Gervais, H. Ritzdorf, G. O. Karame, and S. Capkun, “Tampering with the delivery of blocks and transactions in bitcoin,” in Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, ser. CCS ’15. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2015, pp. 692–705.
 P. Gill, M. Schapira, and S. Goldberg, “Let the Market Drive Deployment: A Strategy for Transitioning to BGP Security,” ser. SIGCOMM ’11. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2011, pp. 14–25.
 S. Goldberg, M. Schapira, P. Hummon, and J. Rexford, “How Secure Are Secure Interdomain Routing Protocols,” in SIGCOMM, 2010.
 E. Heilman, A. Kendler, A. Zohar, and S. Goldberg, “Eclipse attacks on bitcoin’s peer-to-peer network,” in 24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15), 2015, pp. 129–144.
 Y.-C. Hu, A. Perrig, and M. Sirbu, “SPV: Secure Path Vector Routing for Securing BGP,” ser. SIGCOMM ’04. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2004, pp. 179–192.
 J. Karlin, S. Forrest, and J. Rexford, “Pretty Good BGP: Improving BGP by Cautiously Adopting Routes,” in Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols, ser. ICNP ’06. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, pp. 290–299.
 E. K. Kogias, P. Jovanovic, N. Gailly, I. Khoffi, L. Gasser, and B. Ford, “Enhancing bitcoin security and performance with strong consistency via collective signing,” in 25th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 16). Austin, TX: USENIX Association, 2016, pp. 279–296.
 J. A. Kroll, I. C. Davey, and E. W. Felten, “The economics of bitcoin mining, or bitcoin in the presence of adversaries.” Citeseer.
 A. Miller, J. Litton, A. Pachulski, N. Gupta, D. Levin, N. Spring, and B. Bhattacharjee, “Discovering bitcoin’s public topology and influential nodes.”
 S. J. Murdoch and P. Zielinski, “Sampled traffic analysis by Internet- ´ exchange-level adversaries,” in Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 7th International Symposium, PET 2007, N. Borisov and P. Golle, Eds. Springer-Verlag, LNCS 4776, 2007, pp. 167–183.
 K. Nayak, S. Kumar, A. Miller, and E. Shi, “Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack,” IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, vol. 2015, p. 796, 2015.
 T. Neudecker, P. Andelfinger, and H. Hartenstein, “A simulation model for analysis of attacks on the bitcoin peer-to-peer network,” in IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Internet Management. IEEE, 2015, pp. 1327–1332.
 P. v. Oorschot, T. Wan, and E. Kranakis, “On interdomain routing security and pretty secure bgp (psbgp),” ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur., vol. 10, no. 3, Jul. 2007.
 A. Pilosov and T. Kapela, “Stealing The Internet. An Internet-Scale Man In The Middle Attack.” DEFCON 16.
 Y. Rekhter and T. Li, A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4), IETF, Mar. 1995, rFC 1771.
 M. Rosenfeld, “Analysis of hashrate-based double spending,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.2009, 2014.
 A. Sapirshtein, Y. Sompolinsky, and A. Zohar, “Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin,” CoRR, vol. abs/1507.06183, 2015.
 E. B. Sasson, A. Chiesa, C. Garman, M. Green, I. Miers, E. Tromer, and M. Virza, “Zerocash: Decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin,” in 2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE, 2014, pp. 459–474.
 B. Schlinker, K. Zarifis, I. Cunha, N. Feamster, and E. Katz-Bassett, “Peering: An as for us,” in Proceedings of the 13th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, ser. HotNets-XIII. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2014, pp. 18:1–18:7.
 J. Schnelli, “BIP 151: Peer-to-Peer Communication Encryption,” Mar. 2016, https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-0151.mediawiki
 X. Shi, Y. Xiang, Z. Wang, X. Yin, and J. Wu, “Detecting prefix hijackings in the Internet with Argus,” ser. IMC ’12. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2012, pp. 15–28.
 Y. Sompolinsky and A. Zohar, “Secure high-rate transaction processing in bitcoin,” in Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Springer, 2015, pp. 507–527.
 Y. Sun, A. Edmundson, L. Vanbever, O. Li, J. Rexford, M. Chiang, and P. Mittal, “RAPTOR: Routing attacks on privacy in TOR.” in USENIX Security, 2015.
 A. Tonk, “Large scale BGP hijack out of India,” 2015, http://www.bgpmon.net/large-scale-bgp-hijack-out-of-india/
 ——, “Massive route leak causes Internet slowdown,” 2015, http://www.bgpmon.net/massive-route-leak-cause-internet-slowdown/
 L. Vanbever, O. Li, J. Rexford, and P. Mittal, “Anonymity on quicksand: Using BGP to compromise TOR,” in ACM HotNets, 2014.
 Z. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. C. Hu, and Z. M. Mao, “Practical defenses against BGP prefix hijacking,” ser. CoNEXT ’07. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007.
 Z. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. C. Hu, Z. M. Mao, and R. Bush, “iSPY: Detecting IP prefix hijacking on my own,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1815–1828, Dec. 2010.
Hello, I am back. So before I start, this is not a deep web or darknet story, this is just a true story on why I stopped hacking blind. submitted by
Back in 2016 I was in a hacking group, now I'm not going to say what our name was, it wasn't very popular but we were in the realm of twitch raiding. Our small group of about 9 would go on twitch and find children or just anyone stupid enough to do what "Twitch support" says. I called this game Simon Says, because we would social engineer these people to give us their streamkey and we would IP log them, then DDoS them offline and hijack their stream. I can admit back then we didn't give a damn, we would stream isis home movies on these children's stream, just to watch for that message saying "This channel has be deleted due to term violation". I will admit, we did do good. We started up going this popular camera chat website, I'm sure all of you have been on before. I know there are a lot of naked pervs on there with their you know what's out. If you typed the right tags and search terms, you get to the real pedophiles, and I'm talking about vpns and proxies asking S2R and bitcoin. Yeah, I know what you're thinking, you've been on that site and never came across them. I know some individuals of lizard squad were wanting to take down pedophiles too, but didn't know they were on that site. After a while of reversing polarities and ratting, We moved onto mass scanning. Back in the 90s there was this program called Defcon, and it was like a telephone port scanner, I downloaded a copy of it and tried to decompile it.. With no success. So I wrote my own version of it, but more modern day. My Defcon would grab a text file of randomly generated IP addresses and it would try to connect to port 23 on each ip. One day running a scan I picked up a telnet server, and I immediately open a telnet client on my computer and connected to this server. I sat there for a good 7 hours trying every possible username and password, and still got nothing. I sent the IP and port to some of the members and I went to bed. I woke up to a message containing the words "Guest:Password", I immediately start a group call. Now it would of been about 3:30 AM here in australia at the time. I dread to think who was sleeping. I said how Jack found the username and password, so we all stupidly try to log in to the same guest account at once, and only I got in. I shared my screen on skype and tried going through the logs of this mysterious server to try to find what it is. We were guessing at what it could be. A member we are going to call Jake due to I don't want to drop anyones dox, now Jake thought it must of been a power plant or a water plant. I thought it was most likely an ISP switch, because that's mostly what I would find and break into. We all were taking our guesses on what it could be, so I go in deeper into the server and start changing some values and ones and zeros. After messing around changing crap and creating random files and folders with stupid names, I found in the root folder an ID block. SSH session keys and a lovely ID that says "Children's hospital". I start swearing over and over, a few people left the call and didn't want to know what they just read. I trace the IP from an online ISP IP tracker. The IP came back to Bangkok. I google all over around for a children's hospital in Bangkok and found nothing. A day went past, after I threw away the IP Address and I hadn't slept. I set up google to notify me when something in the news feed containing the words "Bangkok", "Hacked", "Hospital". Three sleepless days later, I get an ding. Now, I don't know if it was just a coincidence or if it was some joke and I'm paranoid and it's from the lack of sleep. I hesitated clicking on it, I was hovering my mouse over the link, trying to click it but couldn't. Instead of clicking it, I broke down crying about what I did, because, it turned out that the settings I was messing with, after my friend Jack logged back in via a ratted relay, the settings were for life support systems. I was hoping it was all just a dream. I spent the next 3 to 5 months in complete paranoia from it. I ended up leaving the group and trying to run from what I did. I joined a new group, new hackers, had no idea about what I did. I taught them were to find pedophiles, and we set up this gig were we would extort pedophiles for bitcoin and give them our word we wouldn't call the police if they donated some coins. Of course we went back, and tipped off their local tipline and sent screenshots with faces and of the gross content. I couldn't really do it anymore and I kept being reminded of my past and what I hacked into, so I tried to leave this group. But I got messed about with my cut of coins, so I just left. Very annoyed. I tried to join another hacking group for a bit, but still the same thing, I couldn't run from the guilt, so I just stopped all together. And now 2018, I just write crappy programs and I teach people on youtube how to also write these programs. I think about what I did every day. People tell me it's not my fault, I was a stupid kid, but I always feel and know it was. It always eats at me all the time. It is my greatest shame. I tried to go back and find the news report just to know how many children I might of killed, but I couldn't find it anymore. I do not have access to that email anymore and that really anoys me the most. I am sharing this because I hope it help me try to not be eaten away from it, so I can move on with my life and do something great So for the next young 16 or 17 year old who goes on a hacking spree, just know what you're breaking into first. =======Feel free to comment and redistribute this in anyway you want, even if it's just to throw me over the hot coals.========= Thank you for taking the time to read all of this. -S.C
We also briefly discuss the implementation of BIP91 and Segwit2X, and whether a Bitcoin hard or soft work is still a possibility. Danny, Eijah, and Trace are all in Las Vegas getting ready for DefCon. Hacking bitcoin and blockchain Both bitcoin and blockchain are vulnerable to attack. Here's what you need to know to protect yourself and why blockchain is becoming a foundational technology. defcon.org media.defcon.org defcongroups.org. DEF CON Dates. DEF CON 28 SAFE MODE August 6-9, 2020 Online. DEF CON 29 Aug. 5-8, 2021 Book a Room! DEF CON 30 Aug. 11-14, 2022. Speaker's Corner. DEF CON CFP: Thinking Back and Moving Forward by Nikita. Bridging the Gap: Dispersing Knowledge through Research Presented at DEFCON by Aditya K Sood, PhD Its publication comes about six months after Brainwallet.org, the most widely used Bitcoin-based brain wallet service, permanently ceased operations. The service voluntarily shut down following Weston is currently working on the application security team of NCR Weston has recently Spoken at DEF CON 22,23 and 24, Blackhat 2016, HOPE11, Hardware.IO 2016, Takdowncon 2016, ICS cyber security 2016, Bsides Boston, Enterprise Connect 2016 ISC2-Security Congress, SC-Congress Toronto and over 60 other speaking engagements from regional events to universities on security subject matter.
After landmark arrests of prominent cyber criminals Bitcoin faces its most severe adversary yet, the very banks it was built to destroy. Banking on Bitcoin full Movie Watch Online Banking on ... As the chart below indicates, when the signal formed in 2016, Bitcoin proceeded to rally by over 4,000% in the year and a half that followed. Just a quick video discussing the Ethereum related talks I saw at DEF CON 25. Porosity Solidity Decompiler: https://github.com/comaeio/porosity Hacking Smart... In which I meet some clever hardware hackers at Defcon who built this awesome Bitcoin vending briefcase. Like what you see? Donate with Bitcoin to 1JqU22aWrv... Presentations from the DEF CON 27 Blockchain Village. DEF CON 23 - Samy Kamkar - Drive it like you Hacked it: New Attacks and Tools to Wireles - Duration: 45:31. DEFCONConference 94,870 views