Namecoin

Namecoin

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We are Bitcoin Forum. Bitcoin is an open-source peer-to-peer digital currency project. P2P means that there is no central authority to issue new money or keep track of transactions.
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CryptoCurrency Stores and shops

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Namecoin and the future of self-sovereign digital identity.

Namecoin's motto is "Bitcoin frees money – Namecoin frees DNS, identities, and other technologies."
biolizard89 has done fantastic work on the DNS part, but let's focus on the identity use case here. Recent events have convinced me that digital identity on the internet is broken. Consider:
What was true in 1993 when cartoonist Peter Steiner wrote "On the internet, nobody knows you are a dog" is still true today. The only difference is that identity is increasingly being weaponized using AI/ML so "On the internet, nobody knows you are a bot" would perhaps be more apt.
I read the following comment from a user on slashdot yesterday:
For the time being, you can assume that this comment was written by a human being. You can click on my username, look back at my history of posts, and go, "OK, here's a bunch of posts, by a person, going back more than a decade, to the TIME BEFORE BOTS." That is, before the first year of 2020.
Since humans are likely to adopt the majority opinion, bad actors find real value in being able to control the narrative online by surrounding the reader with manufactured opinions by bots that due to advances in ML/AI are quickly becoming indistinguishable from real users. This amounts to a Sybil attack on the minds of digital content consumers and poses major threat to the integrity of our social fabric.
Apart from the recent twitter incident used for scamming, nation states have been known to create massive bot armies of fake and hijacked user accounts to try and shift the narratives regarding the Hong Kong independence protests as well as national elections. This will only increase.
Currently, our digital identity is fragmented into silo's largely controlled by government institutions and mega corporations (FAANG) based on a "Trust us" model. As recent events have proven, this is a bad model and in dire need of improvement/replacement. IMHO we need to move from "Trust us" to a "Trust but verify" model where the user is in full control of their digital identity.
Namecoin can and should play an important role in building this 'web of trust composed of self-sovereign identities" as it is neutral (no owner), permissionless and secure (merge-mined). Daniel already developed a proof of concept with NameID but what can we do to take this further?
Personally I'd like to see users create Namecoin identities and link them to their social identities (e.g. Google, Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, etc). Then whenever they create content, they sign it with their private keys. This would allow a reader to verify the content was created by the user. Content verification would have stopped the recent twitter hack, because even if the hackers would have access to internal admin tools they would not have the private keys that the users produce valid content with. "Not your keys, not your content"
Content verification is only one part. Ideally a user would like to verify the integrity of the content creator as well. E.g. has this user passed human verification in any of the linked platforms? Does a trusted linked entity vouch for the reputation or integrity of this user (e.g. a government entity, financial entity or non-governmental organization?). This would require those platforms to allow linking of Namecoin ID with their Platform ID and allow lookup and signing of metadata provided by these platforms. (e.g. UserID Y is linked to PlatformID X and completed human verification on date Z, signed Twitter).
I image users could install an extension similar to uBlock or Privacy Badger that contains human curated blacklists and heuristics that operate on Namecoin entities to perform these checks and flag or filter content and users that fail integrity checks. This would allow a users to automatically weed out potential bots and trolls but keep full control of this process themselves, avoiding potential censorship if this task would fall on the platform owners themselves (something governments are pushing for).
We could take this even further and integrate Namecoin ID's in software and hardware devices as well. This could create chains of trust to verify the entire chain of content creation and manipulation to the final content posted on a social platform. Where every entity signs the resulting content. (E.g. camera -> photoshop -> twitter post)
Apart from signing content/messages (PGP style). Namecoin could perhaps also be used for managing identity tokens in a users 'Identity wallet'. Looking into my physical wallet this could include things like credit cards, insurance cards, government issued IDs, membership cards, transportation cards, key cards, etc. This could be done similar to 'colored coins' on Bitcoin. But would have to support some type of smart contract functionality to be useful (e.g. expiring tokens, etc).
I'm not a developer nor a technical writer, but I do think we need to think long and hard about how we can solve digital identity in a way that empowers users to trust and verify the content and identities of the peers we interact with online while also respecting privacy and preventing censorship by external parties. Namecoin could be the better path to building this web of trust, but given the current pace of AI/ML and the willingness by bad actors to weaponize it at scale against users interests we might not have much time. (Apologies for the rant!)
submitted by rmvaandr to Namecoin [link] [comments]

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About cryptocurrency

A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.[1][2][3] Cryptocurrencies use decentralized control as opposed to centralized digital currency and central banking systems.[4]
The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database.[5]
Bitcoin, first released as open-source software in 2009, is generally considered the first decentralized cryptocurrency.[6] Since the release of bitcoin, over 4,000 altcoins (alternative variants of bitcoin, or other cryptocurrencies) have been created.
In 1983, the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash.[7][8] Later, in 1995, he implemented it through Digicash,[9] an early form of cryptographic electronic payments which required user software in order to withdraw notes from a bank and designate specific encrypted keys before it can be sent to a recipient. This allowed the digital currency to be untraceable by the issuing bank, the government, or any third party.
In 1996, the NSA published a paper entitled How to Make a Mint: the Cryptography of Anonymous Electronic Cash, describing a Cryptocurrency system first publishing it in a MIT mailing list[10] and later in 1997, in The American Law Review (Vol. 46, Issue 4).[11]
In 1998, Wei Dai published a description of "b-money", characterized as an anonymous, distributed electronic cash system.[12] Shortly thereafter, Nick Szabo described bit gold.[13] Like bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that would follow it, bit gold (not to be confused with the later gold-based exchange, BitGold) was described as an electronic currency system which required users to complete a proof of work function with solutions being cryptographically put together and published. A currency system based on a reusable proof of work was later created by Hal Finney who followed the work of Dai and Szabo.[citation needed]
The first decentralized cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was created in 2009 by pseudonymous developer Satoshi Nakamoto. It used SHA-256, a cryptographic hash function, as its proof-of-work scheme.[14][15] In April 2011, Namecoin was created as an attempt at forming a decentralized DNS, which would make internet censorship very difficult. Soon after, in October 2011, Litecoin was released. It was the first successful cryptocurrency to use scrypt as its hash function instead of SHA-256. Another notable cryptocurrency, Peercoin was the first to use a proof-of-work/proof-of-stake hybrid.[16]
On 6 August 2014, the UK announced its Treasury had been commissioned to do a study of cryptocurrencies, and what role, if any, they can play in the UK economy. The study was also to report on whether regulation should be considered.
submitted by Aolga1965 to u/Aolga1965 [link] [comments]

What Happened To Namecoin (NMC) and Peercoin (PPC)?

What Happened To Namecoin (NMC) and Peercoin (PPC)?

https://preview.redd.it/r9hekut6be721.png?width=690&format=png&auto=webp&s=bc67771b4776ef1c04b791bb2f586ae19729405e
https://cryptoiq.co/what-happened-to-namecoin-nmc-and-peercoin-ppc/
Namecoin (NMC) and Peercoin (PPC) were well-known during the early days of altcoin trading. Back when CoinMarketCap launched in April 2013, Namecoin was number three, and Peercoin was number four, with only seven cryptocurrencies listed in total.
Both of these cryptocurrencies brought unique technology to the table and were perhaps considered major cryptocurrencies, but now they practically never come up in discussion. Here, we’ll explore what happened to Namecoin and Peercoin.
Namecoin (NMC): Decentralized DNS Service
Namecoin’s primary purpose was to provide a decentralized domain name service (DNS) system. The .bit top-level domain name is registered via Namecoin (NMC) transactions and is decentralized versus the typical .com domain names registered via ICANN.
Also, Namecoin (NMC) can be used to register personal identities like email, GPG, and Bitcoin addresses, which is possibly useful when doing peer to peer Bitcoin trading.
Unlike ICANN registered domains, .bit cannot be censored or seized and is also much more secure. Further, .bit domain names propagate within about 40 minutes, versus 24-48 hours for standard DNS.
This is certainly useful technology for the development of a decentralized web, but a study in 2015 found that there were only 28 active .bit domain names out of 120,000 that were registered. This is probably because .bit websites can only be viewed with NMControl, which requires Python and is optimal for Linux but hard to install on Windows.
Essentially, the barrier for figuring out how to view .bit websites practically makes it part of the deep web except it’s even harder to use than the Onion browser since the Onion browser works fine on Windows.
During the late 2013 rally, when Bitcoin first exceeded $1,000, Namecoin (NMC) reached a market cap of $100 million. During the long bear market that followed, Namecoin (NMC) dropped below a $3 million market cap in late 2016.
The major crypto rally of late 2017 saw the Namecoin (NMC) market cap spike to an all-time high of $133 million despite very little use of the Namecoin platform for its actual purpose.
Currently, Namecoin (NMC) has a market cap near $10 million and very weak total global volume of less than $20,000 per day. Namecoin is certainly unique but was not easy enough to use to fulfill its mission as a decentralized DNS protocol. That being said, the developer team is still active, and perhaps at some point in the future, they can revamp it to be easier to use.
Peercoin (PPC): The First Proof of Stake (PoS) Cryptocurrency
Peercoin (PPC) pioneered the Proof of Stake (PoS) algorithm, which is an energy efficient way to secure a blockchain and incentivize users to hold coins since they earn interest. Peercoin (PPC) is a hybrid of PoS and Proof of Work (PoW), and pays 1 percent interest per year.
Peercoin (PPC) hit a market cap of $150 million during the late 2013 rally when Bitcoin first exceeded $1,000, and then leveled off to $5 million during the long bear market in late 2016.
During the late 2017 crypto rally, the Peercoin (PPC) market cap hit an all-time high of $235 million. Currently, the Peercoin (PPC) market cap is $14 million with daily trading volume of $100,000 per day.
In summary, Namecoin (NMC) and Peercoin (PPC) both had unique characteristics. Namecoin provided a platform for decentralized DNS services, while Peercoin (PPC) was the very first PoS cryptocurrency.
Besides these unique characteristics, both coins have faded into obscurity. That being said, Namecoin (NMC) and Peercoin (PPC) seem to get revived during major crypto rallies, with both cryptocurrencies experiencing serious pump and dumps during the 2013 and 2017 crypto rallies. Since these coins are not dead, they will probably pump again when the next big crypto rally comes.
submitted by turtlecane to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Three Laws of BTC Bull and Bear Cycle and Its Applications — Freezing Point Forecast — One

Three Laws of BTC Bull and Bear Cycle and Its Applications — Freezing Point Forecast — One
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https://preview.redd.it/ithso6k9w7531.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e87d53120d9cc645b080c070afc5f9b402d56bf3
TOKEN Roll x FENBUSHI DIGITAL
Analyst: Song Shuangjie
Special Adviser: Shen Bo Rin
Guide:
The fourth price-rising cycle of BTC might commence around May 2019. The mainstream institutions join the game and ETF might be the driving force of the fourth round of price cycle.
Summary:
BTC has undergone three rounds of price cycles. ‘It is different this time’ has always been a terrible lesson for investors. The tokens, typical represented by BTC, are special in nature to other financial products, which makes it easily get mistaken that BTC will go up straightly and never decline. When the cycle power works, the asset price, which was thought to create a different history, will collapse. There are 3 major rules of the BTC price cycle:
A. BTC price cycle is closely related to its halving cycle. A complete BTC price cycle lasts for about four years. The price-rising section will commence one year ahead of the time before the output is halved. The BTC output was halved for the first time at the end of November 2012, and before that the BTC price touched the bottom in November 2011. The BTC output was halved for the second time in July 2016, as the BTC price touched the bottom in August 2015. As you can see, each time BTC output halving, is the start of a price-rising cycle, and the price speeding up begins with it.
B. BTC price fluctuation range decreases as market value increasing. The BTC’s (in circulation) market value varies with its price fluctuations, which means BTC’s price rising makes its market value increases, and the price fluctuation range decreases. It is similar to the historical process of other asset classes. During the first price cycle, the price of BTC rose by 10636 times which was the biggest gain, and the maximum drawdown was declined by 93.76%. During the second price cycle, the price of BTC rose by 623 times, and declined by 83.93% maximum. During the third price cycle, BTC rose by 98.57 times at most, the maximum declining has not been confirmed yet.
C. The innovation led by BTC is constantly evolving and more and more approved by the mainstream. From BTC to Altcoin, from Altcoin to Crowdsale, there are iconic innovations and applications in every price cycle. In the first cycle, the birth and gradual application of BTC was a landmark event. In the second cycle, with the re-emergence of BTC in 2013, the tide of the Altcoins was rampant, and a large number of Altcoins appeared. In the third cycle, Crowdsale began to be popular around the world, and many websites started to provide Crowdsale's news and discussion forum. Since 2017, Crowdsale has dominated the blockchain investment, far exceeding VCs and corporate investment. With the development of blockchain technology, the evolution of digital certification, the improvement of practitioners' awareness, and the evolution of government regulation, the innovation led by BTC has evolved and is more approved by the mainstream.
The third round of the price cycle might come to an end around May 2019, and followed by the fourth round of price cycle. The maximum rise in the BTC's fourth price-rising cycle will be smaller than last three cycles. BTC's increasing market value demands more capital. Digital token shall embrace supervision to absorb more institutional funds. ETF will be a viable solution. In the future, it will shift from Crowdsale to ETF, and from deregulation to embracing supervision.
Risk Tips: ETFs have put capital amount into this market less than that we expected. Quantum computer technology is advancing by leaps and bounds
Content
1 The First Round of Price Cycle .
2 The Second Round of Price Cycle
3 The Third Round of Price Cycle
4 Three Major Rules of BTC Price Cycle
4.1 BTC price cycle is closely related to its halving cycle
4.2 BTC price cycle is closely related to its halving cycle
4.3 BTC-led innovatioized by the mainstream
5 The new journey of BTC will Start in May 2019
List of Graphs
Graph 1: BTC Price Trend in The First Price Cycle (in USD)
Graph 2: BTC price trend in the second round of price cycle (in USD)
Graph 3: The number of tokens in 2013 has increased significantly Graph 4: BTC price trend in the third round of price cycle (in USD)
Graph 5: VIX index and BTC price are negatively correlated
Graph 6: Crowdsale has dominated blockchain investment since 2017 (millions of US dollars)
Graph 7: A large number of Crypto Funds were established in recent years.
Graph 8: ETH price trend (in USD)
Graph 9: ETH price is positively related to the size of Crowdsale financing
Graph 10: Lightning network capacity continues to grow
Graph 11: The number of lightning network channels continues to grow
Graph 12: The global Crowdsale growth rate slows down in 2018 .
Graph 13: Crowdsale’s fundraising has started to decline since 2018 .
Graph 14: Significant growth in venture capital in the blockchain sector in 2018
Graph 15: BTC block reward trend reduction
Graph 16: BTC price cycle and halving mechanism (in USD)
Graph 17: BTC market value scale trend increase
Graph 18: BTC price fluctuations become smaller
Graph 19: Admission to mainstream institutions has continued since the end of 2018
Graph 20: The third round of the price cycle may be completed around May 2019
Graph 21: The current stage of the price cycle has been probable more than half, and the downside space is limited
History doesn't repeat itself, but it does rhyme. --Mark Twain
‘It is different this time’ has always been a terrible lesson for investors. The tokens, typical represented by BTC, are special in nature to other financial products, which results in producing an idea, in some investors’ mind, that the price of BTC will go up straightly and never decline. When the cycle power works, the asset price, which was thought to create a different history, will collapse. No matter it is the A-share market of 2007 or the one of 2015, or any ‘bubble time’ in human history, the cycle power played its role. As far as BTC is concerned, its price has also experienced three rounds of cycles.
In addition, when the asset price is in a dark period of continuous decline and weak rebound, the power of the cycle also works. As long as it is a valuable asset, its price will eventually bounce back from the bottom. Opportunities have always been there, if you have an asset with high potential in hand. In the dark moments before dawn, the more you are afraid, the more you will be confused. At this time, you have to believe in the value investing. ‘Be fearful when others are greedy and be greedy when others are fearful’, not the other way around. That means, we shall invest reversely, buying undervalued assets gradually in the bottom region of price decline cycle; selling overvalued assets gradually in the top region of price-rising cycle; and following the trend in other time region of the cycle.
1 The First Round of Price Cycle
The first round of BTC price cycle lasted for 610 days, from March 2010 to November 2011, and in this cycle, BTC price rise rate was the highest of BTCs three price cycles.
The price rise stage of the first round of price cycle, from March 2010 to June 2011, lasted for 447 days. The starting price was 0.003 USD/piece, and the highest price was 31.91 USD/piece, the rise rate reached 10,636 times. The price decline section of the first round of price cycle, from June 2011 to November 2011, lasted for 163 days. In this price decline section, the starting price of BTC was $31.91 per piece, and the lowest price was $1.99 per piece. The decline rate was 94%.
On May 22, 2010, the famous BTC Pizza dealt. Laszlo Hanyecz from Jacksonville, FL, bought two pizzas with 10,000 BTCs. Each price ofBTC is less than 0.01US dollars.
In the first round of the price cycle, there is no explicit positive or negative factors causing BTC's price huge fluctuation. Fluctuations are more like in a “natural” situation. Before the first BTC bubble bursted in November 2011, its price was in a trend of increasing. The reason of rise was that the price base of BTC was very low. With the understanding of BTC gradually getting better, the demand increased, and then, the price rose. For example, June 2011, WikiLeaks and some organizations began accepting BTC donations.
https://preview.redd.it/ol9mlz0kw7531.png?width=688&format=png&auto=webp&s=7f76ac24ef02d785f56c8a770be745cfeddbb1e7
2 The Second Round of Price Cycle
The second round of BTC price cycle lasted for 1377 days, from November 2011 to August 2015, and in this cycle, the price of BTC exceeded gold for the first time.
The price rise stage of the second round of price cycle, from November 2011 to November 2013, lasted for 743 days. The starting price was $1.99 USD/piece, and the highest price was 1,242 USD/piece, the rise rate reached 623 times. The price decline section of the second round of price cycle. From November 2013 to August 2015, lasted for 634 days. In this price decline stage, the starting price of BTC was 1,242 USD per piece, and the lowest price was 199.57 USD per piece. The decline rate was 84%.
At the second price cycle, the range of application of BTC has been greatly expanded. In November 2012, WordPress began to accept BTC; and in October 2013, the world's first BTC ATM was deployed in a coffee shop in Vancouver where customers could buy and sell BTC. In November 2013, the University of Nicosia announced accepting BTC for tuition, the university's chief financial officer called it "gold of tomorrow"; In addition to some underground economy and gray economy began to accept BTC, BTC is also getting closer to daily life.
The success of BTC popularized altcoins. The first type of altcoin LTC (Litecoin) was created in October 2011, and it is the time when the BTC price came to the end of price decline. In 2011, Namecoin and SwiftCoin were born successively. In 2012, Bytecoin and Peercoin were issued, however, BTC was still in the stage of rising slowly from the bottom, and the market was not hot. Along with the re-emergence of BTC in 2013, the tide of the altcoins is rampant, and a large number of altcoins are issued. According to CoinMarketCap data, there were 66 kinds of altcoins at the end of 2013, while there were less than 10 at the beginning of the year.
The safe-haven properties of BTC are widely approved. BTC was a choice for people in many countries that are in crises. The residents flocked to BTC, hoping to maintain assets value through BTC. This phenomenon has occurred many times during the European debt crisis. For example, in early 2013, in order to get the bailout, the Cyprus government imposed taxes on deposits and imposed strict capital controls. In order to prevent property from shrinking, the Cypriot people rushed to bank runs and exchanged their currencies for BTC. The price of BTC quickly rose from 30 something to 265 US dollars.

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Due to the lack of supervision, BTC is often affected by negative events, which makes the market confidence in the danger of collapsing. In October 2013, the FBI seized approximately 26,000 BTCs from the Silk Road website, causing the BTC price to collapse to 110 US dollars. On December 5, 2013, the People's Bank of China banned the use of BTC by Chinese financial institutions, which made the price of BTC declined. In February 2014, Mt. Gox, the largest BTC exchange at the time, said that 850,000 BTCs of its customers were stolen, worth nearly 500 million US dollars, and BTC prices fell nearly half, from 867 to 439 US dollars.
The emergence of a large number of altcoins caused market bleeding. Since 2014, the number of altcoins has exploded. By August 2015, the number has reached 556, resulting in diversion of funds and market expansion. On May 1, 2013, BTC accounted for 94.29% of the market value of all tokens, and the market value of other tokens except the top 10 tokens was about 1%. By August 25, 2015, the proportion of BTC is about 83%, and the other tokens account for 4%, which is obvious.
No matter how magical token is, it is still a kind of asset. The mean return of value is a basic common sense of investment. The value will pull the price back to it, just like the gravity. The risk increases with the price rises, and the value appears when the price declines. In the rising section of this cycle, the price of BTC rose by 623 times, which is a great rise rate. When the price is too high, and the potential return in the future is insufficient, the attractiveness to new investors will fall, and the old investors will leave and look for more lucrative assets. Once the power of trend investors exhausted, the trend will reverse.
3 The Third Round of Price Cycle
The third round of price cycle of BTC is not over and is currently in the downward phase of the cycle. The price increased from August 2015 and lasted for 845 days till December 2017. The starting price of the price-rising cycle BTC was 199.57 USD/piece, and the highest price was close to 20,000 USD/piece. The rise rate is up to 99 times. Since December 2017, the price started to decline. The price has fallen to the lowest 3,191.30 US dollars up to now, a drop of 84%.
BTC networks expanded rapidly, and BTC has gained increasing recognition among legislators and traditional financial companies. Studies have shown that by November 2013, the commercialization of BTC is no longer driven by the underground economy, but by legitimate businesses. During this price cycle, people from more countries can get in touch with, select, trade and use BTC on a daily basis. In January 2016, Bitcoin computing capacity reached 1 exahash/S for the first time; In March 2016, the Japanese cabinet acknowledged that BTC has a function similar to real money. In 2017, Norway's largest online bank Skandiabanken integrated BTC accounts. In December 2017, Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) officially launched BTC futures, which is an important step for BTC to take toward mainstream investment. In October 2018, Fidelity launched its independent subsidiary Fidelity Digital Asset Services to provide digital asset services to institutional customers. In December 2018, the first round of financing was completed by the token exchange Bakkt launched by the Intercontinental Exchange. In February 2019, Nasdaq officially launched - Bitcoin Liquid Index (BLX) and Ethereum Liquid Index (ELX)- two indexes. The pension fund of US invests in the encryption fund, the mainstream organization is accelerating, and the relevant infrastructure is gradually improved.
BTC has become a risky asset. Under the current “three lows” environment - low interest rates, low spreads and low volatility, investors are seeking high returns, which leads to excessive financial risk behaviors and complacency, investors' risk appetite, and high leverage tools and the acceptance of high-risk products has increased, arbitrage transactions have prevailed, liquidity mismatches have been severe, and the overall market is fragile. As the results we can see that, the price of BTC is increasingly correlated with the VIX index (Chicago Options Exchange Volatility Index). A lower VIX index indicates that investors expect less volatility, while a higher VIX indicates higher expected volatility. The lower VIX index indicates that investors are optimistic about S&P 500, while the higher VIX means that investors are uncertain about the market outlook. When market volatility declines, investors buy stocks and other types of risk assets, when the market volatility rises, investors sell risky assets.
Risk assets will be dumped when risk appetite reduces panic market. BTC bid farewell to the nature of safe-haven assets and become a risky asset. Since December 2017, with the decline of the VIX index, the price of BTC rises, and the price of BTC is negatively correlated with the VIX index. At the beginning of 2018, the VIX index skyrocketed and BTC fell rapidly. In October 2018, the global market risk aversion trend increased, the VIX index went up, and the BTC price also fell sharply.

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Crowdsale has become the main financing method in the blockchain field. Crowdsale was born in the second round of the price cycle, Mastercoin did the world's first Crowdsale in July 2013. In 2014, Ethereum also raised funds through Crowdsale, when the price of ETH was less than 0.22 USD per piece. After 2016, when it is in the third price cycle, Crowdsale is popular around the world, and many websites began to provide information and discussion communities for Crowdsale. From a global perspective, Crowdsale has dominated the blockchain investment since 2017, far exceeding VCs and corporate investment. In 2017, Crowdsale raised 7.4 billion US dollars, and in the first half of 2018, Crowdsale Raised 12 billion US dollars.
The Crypto Fund emerged. Along with the Crowdsale boom, a large number of Crypto Funds were created. The number of Crypto Funds newly established in 2017 was nearly 200, far exceeding the total amount of the Crypto funds created in previous years, which fully demonstrated that, with the rise in the price of the token, the enthusiasm of funds to blockchain field is high.

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The rise of blockchain 2.0, the Crowdsale tide pushed ETH up nearly 10,000 times. In the third round of the BTC (Token) price cycle, the biggest star is not BTC, but ETH. Crowdsale after 2016, issued tokens mainly through Ethereum, which represented the rise of ETH in the blockchain 2.0 era. Crowdsale prosperity boosted the rise of ETH. On January 13, 2018, the price of ETH rose to a peak of 1,432.88 US dollars per piece, which is 6512 times rise rate comparing to its initial price.
The ETH price has a significant positive correlation with the growth rate of Crowdsale financing. The growth rate of Crowdsale financing decreased by 69.23% in 2015, the price of ETH decreased by 66.30% in the same year. In 2016, the growth rate of Crowdsale financing increased by 2737.5%, and ETH increased by 753.74%. In 2017, the growth rate of Crowdsale financing increased by 3,159.91%, and ETH rose by 8809.91%.

https://preview.redd.it/ssvz3bonw7531.png?width=660&format=png&auto=webp&s=b91b15aaa7fc4333a7bf1b0bca1fb3bf7ac6fc67
Plan for public blockchain performance improvement emerged, and significant progress were made in lightning network. With the popularization of blockchains, the congestion of BTC and other public chains has gradually emerged, and performance has become one of the bottlenecks in the blockchain industry. In 2018, the performance-improvement plan of the public blockchain emerged. Improvements were made to the difference in blockchain logical architecture, including on-chain capacity expansion schemes by improving consensus mechanism and sharing, and off-chain capacity expansion schemes by status channel, sidechain, off-chain computing, and Layer 0 expansion scheme that enhance the scalability of the blockchain by optimizing the underlying data transmission protocol of the blockchain. Since the main net of BTC lightning network goes live, the number and capacity of channels have been increasing. As of March 10, 2019, the capacity has reached 790 BTC, and the number of channels has reached 35,464.

https://preview.redd.it/qfgryviow7531.png?width=660&format=png&auto=webp&s=59f8f45fb4320fcbf1dff1b50925cb9a8bfb9a7a
Note: The Unique channel refers to the channel that is directly connected to the node for the first time, and the Duplicate channel refers to the channel between the nodes that have been connected.
The standardization of the token is promoted. On January 22, 2018, South Korea required all BTC dealers to disclose their identity, thereby prohibiting anonymous trading of BTC. During the first quarter of 2018, Facebook, Google and Twitter prohibited the promotion of Crowdsale, while the US Securities and Exchange Commission investigated a large number of Crowdsale projects, and issued bans to some Crowdsale projects. Regardless of the government's attitude towards the token, it is committed to incorporating the token into the regulatory framework for legal compliance.
The Crowdsale bubble bursted and the magical story is no longer magical. According to incomplete statistics, in 2017, 871 Crowdsale were completed in the world. These projects involved directions as distributed analogous Facebook, twitter, amazon, and next-generation public chain (blockchain 3.0), etc. These projects have raised a large amount of funds, but the actual operating is worrying. The promotion of the project dissipated a large amount of funds, but the actual development progress was far less than expected, resulting in the market's expectation failure and the diversion of funds from the mainstream token. Superimposed the impact of more and more negative news, technical adjustment requirements and market sentiment fluctuation. The market enters a negative cycle, as the decline begins.

https://preview.redd.it/s51gsunpw7531.png?width=677&format=png&auto=webp&s=f3a2e01c57eece54c9d442b141194faec083350a
In 2018, there has been rapid growth in venture capital in the blockchain sector, indicating that venture capital still have good expectations about the application and future prospects of the blockchain. According to Coindesk data, the risk investment in the blockchain sector in 2018 reverse the decline of 2017, year-on-year increase of 257%, and the total amount for the year 2018 reached 3.1 billion US dollars.

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BTC peaked first. In terms of time, in the third round of the price cycle, the first to peak is BTC, which reached 19,870.62 USD per piece in December 2017. The peak of ETH happened later than BTC, in January 2018. EOS did not peak until April. The important reason for BTC to peak first is that the amount of funds needed to support the BTC market value scale is the largest. When the market’s ability to carry on is not enough, it is inevitable for the price of BTC to react first.
4 Three Major Rules of BTC Price Cycle
The price cycle of BTC has obvious regularity, and some unchanging factors determine the price fluctuation of BTC.
4.1 BTC price cycle is closely related to its halving cycle
One full BTC price cycle lasts approximately four years. In the first round of price cycles, the measure of time span is not reliable because of the availability of BTC trading prices. The second round of the price cycle lasted for 1,377 days, from November 2011 to August 2015, about four years.
The price-rising cycle of BTC is closely related to its halving period, and the price-rising cycle starts one year before each halving. At the end of November 2012, the first production of BTC was halved, that is, the number of BTC generated by each block was 25, and in November 2011, the price of BTC has bottomed out, and the halving of BTC is one year after the second price-rising cycle. In July 2016, production of BTC was halved the second time, that is, the number of BTC generated by each block was 12.5. In August 2015, BTC had already bottomed out, and BTC's production was reduced again one year after the third price-rising cycle started.

https://preview.redd.it/9529268rw7531.png?width=445&format=png&auto=webp&s=fe1050eefe6d70403ddcdc053bdbccb0bc47818f
BTC output halving blows the horn of each price-rising cycle, and the price speeding up begin. Although it is not BTC output halving that brings the price-rising cycle, but the halving of BTC output significantly reduced the growth rate of BTC supply, speeding up the rise of BTC price and the price-rising cycle. From November 2011 to November 2012, before the halving of BTC output, BTC increased by 6.74 times in one year. From November 2012 to November 2013, BTC price increased by 99.57 times. In the third price-rising cycle, BTC price rose by a maximum of 2.87 times in about 11 months before the production cut. After halving, BTC price rose by a maximum of 29.73 times in about 11 months.

https://preview.redd.it/dft83mprw7531.png?width=687&format=png&auto=webp&s=82014d03eaee7136a6995a1b2df1faa9d22c6a5f
4.2 BTC price cycle is closely related to its halving cycle
The change in the market value scale of BTC (circulation) is mainly caused by its price fluctuations, and has little to do with the changes in the total amount of BTC output. According to CMC data, by April 28, 2013, the total amount of BTC that had been mined was about 11.18 million pieces, which is more than 53% of the total amount of BTC of 21 million pieces. The halving mechanism of BTC also accelerated the marginal decline of BTC total growth rate. Compared with the amount of BTC already mined, the new supply of BTC is very insignificant. In addition, the volatility of BTC prices far exceeds the volatility of BTC's total output, and the market value of BTC fluctuates with its price.
The market value of BTC has increased in trend. Because of the trend of BTC price-rising, the number of BTC total output has also increased in one direction, and the market value of BTC has increased in the long run. According to CMC data, on April 28, 2013, BTC's market value in circulation was only 1.5 billion US dollars. By the peak of the third price-rising cycle, the market value increased to 326.1 billion US dollars, and the current market value also reached 113.8 billion US dollars, increased by 74.87 times.
The price volatility of BTC is gradually getting smaller. With the increasing of BTC market value in trend, the BTC market is becoming more and more mature, more and more accepted by the public, more and more professional organizations are participating, the compliance operation is becoming mainstream, and the BTC price volatility is decreasing. Similar to the historical process of other asset classes, and the same thing is repeated again and again. In the first price cycle, the price of BTC increased by 10636 times, and the fell by 93.76% maximum. In the second price cycle, the price of BTC increased by 623 times, and fell by 83.93% maximum. In the third price cycle, the maximum increase of BTC price was 98.57 times, and the biggest decline has not been confirmed

https://preview.redd.it/kmk5qeesw7531.png?width=674&format=png&auto=webp&s=bf9d8fd61b833c87c3f859a3bf0f4f63b9c0ff88
4.3 BTC-led innovation continues to evolve and is more and more recognized by the mainstream
From BTC to Altcoin, from Altcoin to Crowdsale, there are iconic innovations and applications in every price cycle. In the first cycle, the birth and gradual application of BTC was a landmark event. In the second cycle, with the re-emergence of BTC in 2013, the tide of the Altcoins was rampant, and a large number of Altcoins appeared. In the third cycle, Crowdsale began to be popular around the world, many websites started to provide Crowdsale's news and discussion forum. Since 2017, Crowdsale has dominated the blockchain investment, far exceeding VCs and corporate investment.
The original intention of Nakamoto to create BTC is to establish a more efficient means of trading that can be electronically transferred in a safe, verifiable and non-tamperable form. During the early days of bitcoin and blockchain development, this drove the development of most applications of BTC and blockchain. However, with the development of blockchain technology, the evolution of digital token, the recognition of practitioners, and the evolution of government regulation, the changes led by BTC continue to evolve and gain more mainstream recognition.
More and more countries recognize that the blockchain reflects its unique value in many fields. The government has gradually incorporated digital token into regulation, and mainstream institutions are increasingly recognizing BTC. In 2017, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) officially launched BTC futures, as BTC took an important step toward mainstream investment, improving the accessibility of BTC to traditional financial institutions. In March 2017, Cameron's Cliveworth and Taylor W. Crawworth brothers attempted to submit an application to the US Securities and Exchange Commission for BTC ETF (transactional open-ended index fund). Although on September 22, 2018, US Securities and Exchange Commission rejected nine BTC ETF applications, the approval of BTC ETF application is a high probability event in the long run. With the continuous improvement of related infrastructure and the gradual maturity of the market, the pace of institutional entry has shown signs of acceleration. Since the end of 2018, news about the organization of encrypted assets by mainstream institutions has continued.

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5 The new journey of BTC will Start in May 2019
The fourth price-rising cycle of BTC will start in May 2019, and mainstream institutions will enter the market, while ETF may become the core trend of the fourth round of BTC price cycle.
From the perspective of supply, the third halving of BTC begins around May 21, 2020. The price-rising cycle of BTC is closely related to its halving period. The price-rising cycle starts about one year before halving. From this perspective, the BTC price-rising cycle may be opened around May 2019.

https://preview.redd.it/29dzwhwtw7531.png?width=695&format=png&auto=webp&s=7e69a27442cd093611027fd067cb4bbd784cb2b0
From the time dimension, the complete BTC price cycle lasts for about four years. The third round of the price cycle, which started in August 2015, will be completed around August 2019, and the fourth round of the price cycle of BTC will begin thereafter. Considering that the data in the second round of the price cycle is more reliable, only the second round of price cycle data is used as the measurement standard, the complete price cycle is 1377 days, about 3 years and 9 months, and the third round price cycle may end around May 2019.
Combined with the previous two BTC price cycles, the downturn phase of the current price cycle has been probably more than half, and further downside space is limited. In the first two rounds of the price cycle, the duration of the downlink phase is less than the duration of the uplink phase. The duration of the third phase of the price cycle has been confirmed (845 days), while the duration of the downturn phase has been more than half of the upstream phase (450 days). From the first two rounds of the price cycle, the rapid decline in prices occurred in the early stage of the downtrend phase. The price fluctuations of BTC in the second half of the downturn phase have been significantly reduced. The BTC price declines reached 61% in the first half and 74% in the second round of the price cycle, and the corresponding maximum declines in BTC were 94% and 84% respectively. In the current round of the price cycle, the biggest drop has reached 84%, so take it from now, even if the price is further down, the downside space is already limited.
https://preview.redd.it/kra7vduuw7531.png?width=684&format=png&auto=webp&s=4f1eda32d42a15b4e34ebfa5dbdaee78065ab110
Note: The data of the third round of the price cycle and the total duration are up to March 12, 2019.
From the price dimension, the downside space of the current round of BTC prices is limited, and the maximum increase of BTC's fourth price-rising cycle will become smaller. In the first price cycle, the price of BTC increased by 10636 times, and fell by 93.76% maximum. In the second price cycle, the price of BTC increased by 623 times, and fell by 83.93% maximum. In the third price cycle, the maximum increase of BTC price was 98.57 times, and the biggest decline has not been confirmed. On February 6, 2018, BTC fell to a minimum of 3,191.30 US dollars per piece, drop by 84.07%, has reached the low of second round of price cycle, from the perspective of price adjustment, BTC price downside has been more limited. The maximum increase in the fourth price-rising cycle of BTC will be smaller.
From the perspective of risk, after a year of continuous adjustment, BTC prices have fully fallen, risks have been gradually released, and investor’s risk appetite has risen to create favorable conditions for BTC prices to stabilize. Beginning at the end of December 2018, the VIX index has fallen, and now it has reached 15 or below. The investor's risk appetite has gradually picked up, creating favorable conditions for the BTC price to rise stably.
Last but not least, from the perspective of capital, the mainstream institutions accelerated their entry and many positive signals were released. With the continuous improvement of related infrastructure and the gradual maturity of the market, the pace of institutional entry has shown signs of acceleration. Since 2018, on the one hand, the entry of mainstream institutions can bring incremental funds to the entire market, on the other hand, it also contributes to the formal development of the entire industry.
The value of the BTC's market value in circulation continues to increase, and the digital token embraces regulation. It is expected that the ETF will be the core trend in the fourth price cycle. As the value of the BTC and digital token market increases, their use will be more tied-up to legitimate use than illegal activities. According to the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) data, only 10% of the current BTC transactions is related to illegal activities and 90% is used for legal transactions. BTC's increasingly large market value requires more financial support. Digital token will embrace supervision to absorb more funds, and ETF will be a viable solution. In the future, there is going to be an evolution from Crowdsale to ETF, from regulation to embrace supervision.
Note:
Although in this report, we try to predict the bottom and time of Token, especially BTC, by using time and space cycle, we would like to tell investors that it is very dangerous to invest basing on a specific dot and time. An investment shall base on the assessment of the value of the token.
Here are our suggestions: 1. Do not try to predict the market. Mistakes are liable to happen when you try to predict market harshly. 2. Feel the cycle. Cycle is always there, because of the constant human nature;3. Be with a good Token, which will bring you more chance to win. 4.Keep valuation in mind. The most important thing in value investing is to keep the valuation in mind. If the price is reasonable, everything is getable. The key is the difference between price and value (Absolute valuation method is not available with Token because of its specialty. However, a relative valuation method can be applied. Please refer to Token Toll’s report series).
Notions:
For some reasons, some definition in this report are not very defined, such as: Token, Digital Token, Digital Currency, Currency, Crowdsale, etc.
If you have any questions, be free to call us to discuss with us.

https://preview.redd.it/bjnu2hjvw7531.png?width=698&format=png&auto=webp&s=43df46d8337c63a52b8a7089ed5e24360f3b281d
submitted by Token_Roll to u/Token_Roll [link] [comments]

What is causing the price to go parabolic? NMC is up ~100% in one day!

Any news that could have caused this or do you think it's all speculation?
submitted by dross12 to Namecoin [link] [comments]

Basic Bitcoin security guide

Hello,
This post is to give you a quick introduction into Bitcoin security. While nobody can guarantee you 100% security, I hope to mitigate some problems you can run into. This is the “20% of effort to get you to 80% safe”.
First of all, you have to determine how much money you want to hold in Bitcoin and how much effort are you willing to put in. If you are happy just holding a few dollars worth and don’t care if you lose them, that’s one approach to take. For everyone else, lets get started.
Password strength
A lot of the times how secure your money is will be determined by the strength of your password. Since in the worst case scenario we are talking about someone trying to brute force your wallet, casual online passwords are too weak. Under 10 characters is too weak. Common words and phrases are too weak. Adding one number to a password at the end is too weak.
Moreover, you can consider your password much weaker if you:
If you want a really strong password:
Wallet security
Now we are getting to the meat of things.
There are a number of wallets available to store your hard earned bitcoins. If you have a decent amount of coins to store, you should look into software wallets - BitcoinQT, MultiBit, Armory or Electrum. They are among the best place to store your money safely (provided your computer is secure as well). Chose one you think best suits you, install it and encrypt your wallet file with your strong password. You should take your wallet file and back it up (location of the file is different for different clients, so you have to do some research as to where to find that file). Back it up on a CD, safe USB drive or the like. Keep them safe. If you lose that file, you will lose your money.
A quick word on deterministic wallets. Electrum and Armory allow you to create wallets from a seed. If you use the same seed later, you can recreate your wallet on other machines. With deterministic wallets, you only need to keep that seed secure to have access to your money.
In comparison, in BitcoinQT's traditional wallet, every address you use is random, meaning that after you send 50-100 outgoing transactions your backups can be obsolete. Always keep an up-to-date backup of such wallet file if possible.
Okay, sometimes you need to have your Bitcoins with you when you leave your computer. In this case, you should look into either online or mobile wallets. A staple for both of those is Blockchain.info, but there are others to chose from.
A good rule of thumb with these is to not store more money in them than you can afford to lose. They are best used as a convenient way of accessing some money, not storing your savings. Online wallets are especially vulnerable to their servers getting hacked and people’s money getting stolen.
What to keep in mind while using online wallets:
  • Use a secure password (the more money you have in them the stronger the password should be)
  • Always keep a backup of your wallet in case you need to recover your money
  • Whenever possible, enable two factor authentication
  • Don’t use your online wallets from unsafe computers
Cold storage
Sometimes you want to store your bitcoins for a long time in a safe place. This is called “cold storage”. There are a few ways one can do this.
First of all, paper wallets. They are nice for giving people small bitcoin gifts, but also for long-term storage if properly used. What you want to do is generate and print them offline. You can save the linked page for example and run that offline. If you are really paranoid, you can put it on read-only media and access that from a different computer. For really long term storage, use archival-grade paper.
Another approach to take is using a separate computer for storing your money that is offline 99+% of the time. You could set one up easily by buying an old laptop, reformatting it, installing Linux and a Bitcoin client. Generate an address on that machine and send money to it from your main wallet. Depending on how paranoid you are you can connect that computer to the Internet afterwards to synchronize data with the Bitcoin Network and then turn it off and put it away somewhere safe until it’s needed.
Brain wallets
Don’t. They are not for you. Unless you are a security-conscientious programmer, those are not for you.
Diversifying
Keeping all of your eggs in one basket is never a good thing. You should look into diversifying some of your Bitcoin assets in case your other storage methods fail. Some ways you can diversify:
  • Buy a physical Bitcoin. As long as you trust the coin creator such coins can be an effective cold storage
  • Invest - I wouldn’t recommend this for more than some trivial amount unless you know what you are doing, but investing in some Bitcoin stocks could be a way to get more money out of your bitcoins
How not to diversify:
  • Avoid keeping your bitcoins at exchanges or other online sites that are not your online wallets. Such sites can be closed down or disappear along with your money.
  • Alt-coins - there are few cryptocurrencies that are worthwhile, but most of them are just Bitcoin clones. If a currency brings nothing new, it’s worthless in comparison to Bitcoin. Namecoin is a distributed domain name server (although recently it had a fatal flaw uncovered, so be warned), Ripple is a distributed currency exchange and payment system. Litecoin will only be useful in case Bitcoin’s hashing algorithm gets compromised (very unlikely at this time). Beyond that there are few if any alt-coins that are a worthwhile way of diversifying.
Accepting payments and safety
We’ve covered safe ways to store money, now a quick note about bitcoin payments and their safety.
First of all, when you are sending a transaction, pay your fees. Transactions without fees can take forever to propagate, confirm and clear. This can cause you a lot of stress, so pay your fees.
Secondly, when accepting large Bitcoin payments (say you want to suddenly cash in a gold bar into bitcoins), wait for at the very least 1 confirmation on those transactions. 6 is best, but having even 1 confirmations is a lot better than having none. This is mainly a rule of thumb for the paranoid (I wouldn’t be doing this for most casual transaction), but maybe it will save you if you are dealing with some shady people.
Wrapping up...
That should cover the basics. If you want to read more about Bitcoin’s security in general, here is my master thesis on the subject. A lot of questions about Bitcoin and security have also been answered on Bitcoin StackExchange - be sure to check it out.
Comments and improvement suggestions welcome.
EDITS:
  • Removed link to insecure site
  • Removed random article section
  • Added information about deterministic wallets
submitted by ThePiachu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Merged Mining: Analysis of Effects and Implications

Date: 2017-08-24
Author(s): Alexei Zamyatin, Edgar Weippl

Link to Paper


Abstract
Merged mining refers to the concept of mining more than one cryptocurrency without necessitating additional proof-of-work effort. Merged mining was introduced in 2011 as a boostrapping mechanism for new cryptocurrencies and countermeasures against the fragmentation of mining power across competing systems. Although merged mining has already been adopted by a number of cryptocurrencies, to this date little is known about the effects and implications.
In this thesis, we shed light on this topic area by performing a comprehensive analysis of merged mining in practice. As part of this analysis, we present a block attribution scheme for mining pools to assist in the evaluation of mining centralization. Our findings disclose that mining pools in merge-mined cryptocurrencies have operated at the edge of, and even beyond, the security guarantees offered by the underlying Nakamoto consensus for extended periods. We discuss the implications and security considerations for these cryptocurrencies and the mining ecosystem as a whole, and link our findings to the intended effects of merged mining.

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submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

Echoes of the Past: Recovering Blockchain Metrics From Merged Mining

Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/1134
Date: 2018-11-22
Author(s): Nicholas Stifter, Philipp Schindler, Aljosha Judmayer, Alexei Zamyatin, Andreas Kern, Edgar Weippl

Link to Paper


Abstract
So far, the topic of merged mining has mainly been considered in a security context, covering issues such as mining power centralization or crosschain attack scenarios. In this work we show that key information for determining blockchain metrics such as the fork rate can be recovered through data extracted from merge mined cryptocurrencies. Specifically, we reconstruct a long-ranging view of forks and stale blocks in Bitcoin from its merge mined child chains, and compare our results to previous findings that were derived from live measurements. Thereby, we show that live monitoring alone is not sufficient to capture a large majority of these events, as we are able to identify a non-negligible portion of stale blocks that were previously unaccounted for. Their authenticity is ensured by cryptographic evidence regarding both, their position in the respective blockchain, as well as the Proof-of-Work difficulty.
Furthermore, by applying this new technique to Litecoin and its child cryptocur rencies, we are able to provide the first extensive view and lower bound on the stale block and fork rate in the Litecoin network. Finally, we outline that a recovery of other important metrics and blockchain characteristics through merged mining may also be possible.

References
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submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

Newcomer here,

downloaded lubuntu, download namecoin qt. extract to folder, but lubuntu asks to choose aplication to open files, hard for me to figure out, any help aprecciated. Could not understand wiki, bitcoin was easy for me
submitted by redditreddirusa to Namecoin [link] [comments]

Merged Mining: Curse or Cure?

Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2017/791
Date: 2017-08-22
Author(s): Aljosha Judmayer, Alexei Zamyatin, Nicholas Stifter, Artemios Voyiatzis, Edgar Weippl

Link to Paper


Abstract
Merged mining refers to the concept of mining more than one cryptocurrency without necessitating additional proof-of-work effort. Although merged mining has been adopted by a number of cryptocurrencies already, to this date little is known about the effects and implications. We shed light on this topic area by performing a comprehensive analysis of merged mining in practice. As part of this analysis, we present a block attribution scheme for mining pools to assist in the evaluation of mining centralization. Our findings disclose that mining pools in merge-mined cryptocurrencies have operated at the edge of, and even beyond, the security guarantees offered by the underlying Nakamoto consensus for extended periods. We discuss the implications and security considerations for these cryptocurrencies and the mining ecosystem as a whole, and link our findings to the intended effects of merged mining.

References
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  12. A. Gervais, G. O. Karame, K. Wust, V. Glykantzis, H. Ritzdorf, and S. Capkun. On the ¨ security and performance of proof of work blockchains. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS ’16, pages 3–16, New York, NY, USA, 2016. ACM.
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submitted by dj-gutz to myrXiv [link] [comments]

OpenBazaar store name registration compromised, caveat emptor.

Like most people here I been anticipating the launch of OpenBazaar. On a recent post about the project a small detail got my attention, it uncover the fact that the project has been compromised by the same corporations we are trying to replace.
http://imgur.com/K3TmPYH taken from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijE6ktEsm4o
Union Square Ventures: http://www.usv.com/portfolio OneName and OB1 (dev team behind OpenBazaar) http://imgur.com/WthBLjk Also ETSY: https://www.usv.com/blog/etsy "online marketplace for products sold by artisanal businesses"
The OneName & OpenBazaar connection:
When you create a store in OpenBazaar you are given a string of characters that represent your store on the network, This long string is obviously not memorable or marketable, so you need to get an store name that resolves into the string. Similar to a Domain, resolving into an IP.
Users signing up for an OpenBazaar store are directed to create an account with OneName, an startup that got funding from Union Square. Open Bazaar also got an investment from them, which is great, until you realise that unless you are Nakamoto, there is no free lunch. http://imgur.com/K3TmPYH
We all know that when you don't pay for a product, you are the product. Please ask OneName what is their business model, how do they make money? http://imgur.com/bekR26r
OneName provides a web API that resolves OpenBazar store names, you post a user store ID to them, and they reply with the data that OpenBaazar needs in order to locate and display the store. If you request the CoolToys store, you request is submitted to the OneName web API, which answers with the correct string that represents the store. The OpenBazaar client receives this and shows you the store. Basically a centralised OpenBazaar DNS. Goodbye privacy. http://imgur.com/ZOphgXb
Turns out that when Namecoin was created; 2 sections on it where definen as standard. The /d section for Domains , and the /id section for IDs.
Obviously the idea behind the Namecoin IDs, is that everyone can use the same section and avoid collisions. That way there will be an open source unique blockchain where you can own your identity credentials. Every service could then use this ID location, so you will never need to register again for an internet service.
OneName came to light mid 2014, and avoided using the already existent /ID section (which be the time already had registers) and instead create their own section inside Namecoin; the /u and /i sections or "Namespaces". When you register at the OneName website an entry is created in Namecoin /u and /i . If you ask them why did they not use the /ID namespace (as expected by anyone writing ID data on Namecoin), they say is because they did not have enough space to store all their data. They solve this by using 2 namespaces instead of one. How clever!
http://imgur.com/43AXKSS https://wiki.namecoin.info/index.php?title=OneName They needed the extra space to list ALL your social networks? they could have done exactly the same inside /ID.
The real reason to create a new namespace was so that they can control and register the names to all stores. I found this last night after waiting for the Namecoin blockchain to sync, tried to register some names at the newly created non-standard /u namespace. Every single good store name is taken!
"Option #2 (NAMECOIN) is for developers who want to register directly on the blockchain manually" https://twitter.com/muneeb/status/623453126494916610 Developers only?
OneName will force you into OpenBazaar using their API, so that they can restrict you to the /U namespace that they fully control. It wont work with the Namecoin standard /ID namespace! Hello aftermarket for OpenBazaar names! https://api.onename.com/
Before Capital Ventures funded OpenBazaar, the plan was to go with Namecoin /ID standard as referenced here: https://github.com/OpenBazaaOpenBazaaissues/484 OneName got away with it even after the same OpenBazaar devs pointed the reason why the standard /id namespace was the right choice.
So what is the alternative?
Any Namecoin blockexplorer could easily answer requests to resolve the /ID Namespace. http://explorer.namecoin.info/n/id/mike (Is the current OneName web api derived from an open source block explorer?).
Why put all the trust on OneName untested protocol, while we have the alternative of using multiple available Namecoin explorers? Maybe users can select one that they trust, just as we do with DNS now.
Namecoin SPV could soon resolve this without the need of centralised servers, while is not ready just yet, there is an ongoing effort to have it ready soon. Data will then be safe on a well proven blockchain that was even part of Satoshi work.
If we do not do this we have a great risk. OpenBazaar being the first major user of crypto based IDs will make OneName successful on hijacking the Namecoin /ID namespace. The rogue namespace will have enough traction to become the standard; they will not only control the but also the , and associated web of trust.
http://imgur.com/IZeSYIf (Do u/gavinandresen, u/vbuterin and Jeff Garzik really endorse them, or are their images been abused?)
Yet another reason to re-consider OneName is that they have stated that they are blockchain agnostic, and been discussing moving away from Namecoin (read if they are not successful hijacking the /ID namespace they will move). That will also mean that they will move YOUR ID DATA at THEIR convenience. How will data from people for which private keys do not control, be moved? See OneName's Blockstore project.
Finally, If OpenBazaar is as successful as we all want it to be, the hijacking of Namecoin will not only affect OpenBazaar but will affect all Bitcoin users. If a network effect is created around the OneName rogue names and resolvers, you will soon depend on them too.
Dear OpenBazaar Devs, everyone appreciates the hard work you are putting into this project. The implications of your work go beyond creating a new market. Please realise that OneName's /U is a trap. Reconsider your OneName affiliation and remain true to the idea of creating a free and decentralised market that is independent of the interest of corporations. Letting OneName and affiliated corporations, set the rules to resolve and control the names of stores and users in a rogue namespace with a constantly changing untested protocol does not stand by the open free market goals; have strong implication on the Bitcoin ecosystem, and will ultimate result in a OpenBazaar fork.
Att. Unhappy Ebay & ETSY user.
Edit1: Please review this: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3es6dy/openbazaar_store_name_registration_compromised/cti09hj
submitted by 4goodbazaar to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What do you guys think about dwolla as a way of circumventing big banks? (ie PayPal)

What do you guys think about dwolla as a way of circumventing big banks? (ie PayPal) submitted by MTCONE to darknetplan [link] [comments]

Merged mining (AuxPow), could this be another solution?!

It seems like everybody just forgot about Merged Mining. To me it looks like another option, to protect the chain. I remember long ago Dogecoin was faced with the same threat (then nobody attacked) and the developers implemented Merged Mining, as a solution to the same threat. (it was only "theoretical threat", but as we see now it could have been real).
Satoshi was also talking about it (although I can't find the original post) . Here is some links for the community to read more about "Merged Mining":
https://coincentral.com/what-is-merged-mining/
https://www.cryptocompare.com/mining/guides/what-is-merged-mining-bitcoin-namecoin-litecoin-dogecoin/
https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Merged_mining_specification
*Just found the link to the original Satoshi's post: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1790.msg28696#msg28696
submitted by xman5 to btc [link] [comments]

"Code is Law": Comedy Gold Survey on Ethereum

Survey ID: 00001 Coin: Ethereum Client: Tyler Durden

Executive summary:

Ethereum is almost certainly the number 2 coin in comedy gold. It will likely surpass Bitcoin in comedy gold long before it passes it in market cap. Thanks in large part to a spam-based marketing campaign on Reddit, it also has a dedicated base of critics.
After its IPO, it was known as “Inthereum” for a while, infinitely powerful of course, as vaporware can do anything. It had a major version release, then another. Finally, a major smart contract, in terms of valuation, came along: The DAO. Not to be confused with other DAOs, before and after. The DAO was the biggest. It was going to be the best; it already was the best! Euphoria was off the charts.
Until just a few months in, a bug was found. And the killer app became the flash point. What could they do? Well, hard fork and give the money back, of course! And so they did.
“Code is Law”; but this is actually good for Ethereum because “[a]lthough some do question the analogy ‘code is law’. I do not. We just found out that we have a supreme court, the community!” [1]
After the D'OH, Ethereum struggles to top its ATH comedy gold, but there is still a bright future for popcorn and comedy gold from Ethereum.

5 Largest Veins of Comedy Gold

Here are the largest comedy gold veins in Ethereum in potential reserves in our estimation in approximately descending order:
  • Cultlike euphoria - Now, this can certainly be said to be common to almost all cryptocurrencies. But Ethereum seems special here, even more than Bitcoin's community. There is a real belief here that this coin is going to change the world. This helps play into a "this is very good for Ethereum" mindset, wherein even the D'OH fork was a great success!
There is no greater terror than a fiend on ether.
  • Vitalik Buterin - The best name in cryptocurrency! Young genius central to Ethereum and almost universally seen as the most important leader in the project. In our view, his endorsement and leadership during the D'OH fork led to that route being taken. That is, we believe if he had opposed it from the start, he may have been able to prevent it or at least have led to what is now called ETC being the dominant of the two.
And so in our view, Mr. Buterin runs a billion dollar cryptocurrency right now. He and his team seem to have done reasonably well so far; it seems likely they'll continue to thrive. To the best of my knowledge, confirmed on /ethereum, there hasn't been a drug market implemented in Ethereum or trading with ETH so far. But while it seems like a terrible idea, because of the lack of privacy and proven mutability of contracts, it seems like eventually there's going to be a major drug market accepting ETH just because it has such a high value. And, they point out, monero and zcoin’s core privacy feature will apparently be available on ETH after this next fork, so look forward to anonymous ETH fueling drug markets!
And then the interesting question will be raised of how Chief Justice Buterin will rule on the case, whether it is worthy of an intervention or not. If not a drug market, then another buggy and hacked contract. Or a hacked exchange, and the question of whether to make it or its users whole, or "let the hacker win".
  • DAOs - From the beginning, it was proposed that Ethereum itself and its reserve fund would be turned into a DAO. How exactly this was going to happen would be figured out later of course. There was an initial estimate of 2016 for the transition.
Of course, in 2016, The DAO and the D'OH happened. I'm not aware of a current further push to put all of ETH's future funding into a DAO. But I'm sure the topic will resurface. And it will be hilarious on so many levels. The DAO actually collapsed too soon for peak comedy gold extraction. It had been predicted that there would be no consensus on any proposals and that nothing would be funded, and that there would be gold from that. But it was just a few months in when the bug was found. And while the D'OH fork was certainly a rich vein of comedy gold, it wasn't as rich as what the DAO could have been if it had floundered around for a year or so before the hack.
Surprisingly, there's actually a running, apparently working DAO on ETH that was started even before The DAO: digixDAO. If it keeps on running, it will continue to be hilarious as other DAOs fail to learn from it. If it fails, there's all the more hilarity for Ethereum, making it the platform where anything complicated enough to look like an original use case will break. The very existence of digix is proof-of-comedy-gold.
  • Immutability - The whole central notion of immutability is going to be a recurring question for Ethereum after the D'OH. While there was a lot of sentiment of "just this once and never again" at the time, there will someday be another major issue, and the precedent will mean that at least a major debate among the community will be had. Ethereum is "mostly immutable". Bitcoin is far better protected here, because while it's true they've hard forked to fix a bug before, that was years ago and the community is far more fractured now. Ethereum has a demonstrated capacity to do both routine and controversial hard forks. This strength is also a challenge, as it will invite constant legal and ethical questions about when it's appropriate to modify the chain itself with a fork: that is, rolling back some or all transactions after major bugs, thefts, frauds, and so forth.
  • Concentration of funds - This one I'm just guessing at. Although rich lists do exist, obviously one entity like an exchange could pool funds in an address without one person owning that much, or one person could splits their coins among many accounts. But it gives a rough guide. In Bitcoin, the top 113 addresses, having more than 10,000 BTC, in total are 17.46% of the current supply [ 2 ]. And in Ethereum, it's true that the top two accounts are marked as exchange accounts [ 3 ]. Still, having lots of funds concentrated in a single exchange wallet seems to still have some potential for comedy gold. In Ethereum, the top 50 addresses have more than double the proportion of the top 113 in Bitcoin, a bit over 40% of the current supply. My guess would be there are still a lot of people who invested heavily in the initial ICO who have held onto a significant portion of their initial ETH. While some of these top addresses are exchanges, I think there are probably many individuals represented in here as well, and every one of them is a multimillionaire from this account alone.
Of course, so far, because ETH is still smaller than BTC in overall market cap, these top addresses aren't as huge as the top addresses in Bitcoin in current market value. But if ETH were to overtake BTC's current position with a relatively unchanged distribution, there would be some real comedy gold coming off this factor. Cribs could have a spin-off Ethereum series.
This concentration was a part of making The D'OH what it was in my view as well: in Bitcoin, there would never have been so much of the coin tied up in one particular venture, at least not now. But in Ethereum, this concentration and groupthink can combine to hilarious effect.

A Brief History of Comedy Gold in Ethereum:

“Laws, like sausages, cease to inspire respect in proportion as we know how they are made” - John Godfrey Saxe
In the beginning, there was an offering. The greatest coin the world had ever seen; step right up and buy it! There was even code; this is no vaporware! Sure, there was more work to be done, but the ICO would fund that work, the founders would get a little, and create a reserve for the future and the rest would be mineable.
There was also some of the most vociferous objections on BCT, declaring that the stake allocated to the founders was too large, pointing to other coins which had done smaller or done without. Arguing against the reserve; arguing against having a presale at all. Some people, of course, completely failing to read the documentation accurately to see what was even being proposed. And an almost complete radio silence from this large team working around the clock on Ethereum.
It took some months from when the initial ANN was made until the sale actually started, but by the time they had their sale, they had perhaps the best documentation at launch to-date. Of course, there were some areas which seemed to lack some detail, like the budgeting, but never mind that, it was finally launching!
Launching the sale, at least. In July and August of 2014, Ether was first sold. It was described as “fuel” for the virtual machine they were going to build [ 4 ].
And then, a year later, Ethereum was released live. By July 2016, it had already had its first major crisis after The DAO was hacked and the D’OH fork introduced in response.
But the fact that Ethereum was ever released, and that it was released so quickly, is truly incredible. There was more than one person who thought that the stated goals of Ethereum were not possible. And, of course, many initial goals and deadlines didn’t happen. But unlike the railbirds on BCT were convinced, the team did not fail nor did it run off with the money. They were given a blank check, and they actually delivered a working product which has been successful so far financially.
Of course, having its flagship smart contract go belly-up quite so quickly after having finally gotten a “killer app” seems rather unfortunate. The oracle problem (the question of how to reliably relate smart contracts to the outside world) seems unresolved, but partial solutions are inevitable and can only serve to make increasingly complex and thus popcorn-loaded contracts possible.
Right now, all seems relatively quiet. But rest assured, there remains plenty of euphoria and gas to drive many more cycles of comedy gold production. Ether huffers need something to throw their ETH at. The more complicated; the better! Given some of the creations that have been made in NXT, for instance, a few more years of creativity on ETH should yield some very complicated and pop-corn rich smart contracts.

Researcher’s Narrative:

I was relaxing in my office, waiting for business. It was a dingy little one-room affair, but it would serve for now. Particularly with no clients. I had poured myself a double shot, and was about to enjoy it, when suddenly the door opened.
A man walked in, familiar somehow although I couldn't place him. I reached out my hand instinctively, and instead of shaking it, he handed me a dollar.
"Hello?"
He pointed at the sign in the window, advertising a promotional one dollar gold survey for the first client. Always astute, I quickly surmised he wished to hire me.
"Of course, sir! What coin would you like?"
"Ethereum."
"Certainly! And may I have your name for the log?"
"Tyler Durdan."
And with that, my newest client left. I downed my double and poured a generous triple to follow it. This was going to be a long day.
Ethereum was the ultimate prize in my line of work. The coin which proved the adage that truth is stranger than fiction; which had proved itself a lucrative source of comedy gold.
And who am I? Guy Noir, private comedy gold surveyor. I've seen things you people wouldn't believe. Premined scamcoins crashing on noname exchanges. I watched popcorn glitter in the dark on forgotten the BCT threads. Popcorn junkies strung out on a high, and I've delivered them more comedy gold, popcorn, salt and butter. There is never enough.
A dark night in a world that never sleeps and knows how to keep its secrets...But on the 12th Floor of the Acme Building, one man is still trying to find the answers to life's persistent questions: Guy Noir, private comedy gold surveyor.
Thank you, Narrator. Now, as I was saying, Ethereum is overloaded with gold. But the core is pretty straightforward:
Ethereum promised "smart contracts". Immutable. Turing-complete. This was what Bitcoin lacked. The bee's knees. Crypto 2.0. What could go wrong?
We'll skip over the "Inthereum" period. Perhaps the vaporware criticism was never fair: from their version, they had Proof-of-Concept code; they went through some iterations and eventually got to release.
Let's note clearly that there was plenty of time to determine some sort of official policy for what to do about a buggy or improperly written contract losing money. In Bitcoin, every hack has been a SFYL event, although it’s true that a bug in the coin itself was hard forked away before. Mt. Gox tried to blame malleability, but there was never a fork to try to recover funds. In Ethereum, immutability was often talked about. So far as I saw in skimming, “what if” scenarios to undo bugs wasn’t brought up front-and-center. Nor was immutability being debated that I saw.
So Ethereum releases. A major contract is launched, The DAO, which gets an astonishing portion of ETH invested. The world's largest crowd sale as they ultimately called it. All the major players in ETH buy into it, including Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum and the best name in cryptocurrency.
Just as they're starting to get into the comedy gold that The DAO doesn't really have a purpose, a bug is discovered. And just as its leader is assuring everyone that no funds are at risk, the funds start being drained out of the contract by an unknown party.
And suddenly immutable means "immutable unless we screw up on the biggest contract which everyone important has invested in heavily". Ethereum ultimately hard-forks to return investor funds and basically unwind The DAO. After claiming that the bug was in the contract, the coin itself is hard forked to fix the issue. And the first Ethereum clone results, one which simply does not follow the new hard fork.
So the natural question is: when can a contract be changed? In the first page of the Ethereum launch, this question was implied by asking about what would happen if there were an assassination market hosted by a smart contract on Ethereum. Of course, in reality, Ethereum is not really functional enough at present to enforce such a contract, but the question remains in case Ethereum were to actually attain a functioning smart contract platform.
Attempted reference to Tears in rain monologue, credit to Rutger Hauer
Guy Noir and narrator text lovingly stolen from Prairie Home Companion's Guy Noir, by Garrison B. Keillor.

Researcher’s Rant

Filed for psych eval
Twenty pages into the BCT ANN, I believe I have contracted cancer, again. I’m reminded of why I don’t generally go on BCT. As bad as altcoin forums tend to be for their circlejerking, it’s almost better than the, well, there’s really no way to put it other than FUD that inevitably appears in response to anything. Of course, it’s not paid shilling so much as it is willful and vocal ignorance. For all the critiques in that thread, most of them are utter nonsense and simply are misreading the initial information. On the other hand, it’s January 27th in the thread by now, with February 1st and the pre-sale start, and they don’t have their “prospectus” up yet. I also haven’t seen the change in mining rate yet.
Side note: eMunie; wtf? I guess I missed something? Either it’s gone through a namechange or it’s dead, because a quick coinmarketcap search didn’t find anything. A comedy gold mining project for another day.
Great; spoiler alert: fundraiser delayed apparently, so even more cancer to read through in that thread on the way to getting to a prospectus!
The first 44 pages of the thread was summarized thus: “I want to believe. Why are you not speaking to us? Throw me a bone. Just tell me what I want to hear, and I'll gladly throw my money in.” [ 5 ] Would that I had only had to read that quote rather than all 44 pages, and facing many more.
Pages and comments dragged on as I waded through the low-grade popcorn. When would this prospectus be released, so my torment would end? Oh god: a side-thread shows that by the time they get to April, there’s still no prospectus or presale date or estimate of when there may be a date [ 6 ]. It’s time to give up on reading through the cancerous mainthread on BCT and start jumping ahead pages to find the pre-sale and prospectus.
Okay, finally, in July, they release documents and start the sale [ 7 ]. Good enough.
I have mountains of links on my desk. Comedy gold is overflowing, but this is a survey expedition, not a mining operation. But by the time it’s surveyed, there’s always so much gold lined up to mine it gets hard to leave it behind and leave with the samples.
It’s time to hammer out some copy and close this file.
Folks, we hope you’ve enjoyed this descent into madness and comedy gold brought to you by the Comedy Gold Survey Company and our patron Tyler Durden. Do you need more comedy gold in your life? Of course you do! So please donate today; every $1 helps! I’ve added a new special: $5 lets you choose the next coin to be surveyed!
Thanks again to Tyler Durden, and I will now be re-watching Fight Club and questioning my sanity. Cheers y’all!
Resources:
Edit: 3/26/2020: Removed a link to a comment per request from the user.
Footnotes and other links:
submitted by coinaday to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Namecoin is Useful, but Bitcoin Buys Guns!  PNN Live #60 How to buy Bitcoins with a paysafecard - YouTube What is Namecoin Bitcoin's First Fork - YouTube How to setup a namecoin wallet Free Bitcoin Only WiFi

Namecoin (Symbol: ℕ or NMC) is a cryptocurrency that is mined with bitcoin software as bonus. It is based on the code of bitcoin and uses the same proof-of-work algorithm. Like bitcoin, it is limited to 21 million coins. Unlike bitcoin, Namecoin can store data within its own blockchain transaction database. Bitdns was project with the goal to extend Bitcoin's technology to a domain name service, expanding the software to support transactions for registering, updating, and transferring domains. The project eventually became an altchain with its own altcoin, known as Namecoin . Vircurex is an exchange allowing trading of P2P digital currencies. It was opened for trading in October 2011. It focuses on providing sophisticated trading mechanisms (orders, stoporders, options, loans) for Bitcoins and the most popular alt chains. Namecoin (Symbol: ℕ oder NMC) ist eine Kryptowährung, die mit Bitcoin-Software als Bonus gewonnen wird.Es basiert auf dem Code von Bitcoin und verwendet den gleichen Proof-of-Work-Algorithmus.Wie Bitcoin ist es auf 21 Millionen Münzen begrenzt. Im Gegensatz zu Bitcoin kann Namecoin Daten in seiner eigenen Blockchain-Transaktionsdatenbank speichern. This page was last edited on 10 January 2018, at 00:00. Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 unless otherwise noted.; Privacy policy; About

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Namecoin is Useful, but Bitcoin Buys Guns! PNN Live #60

Free Bitcoin Only WiFi BITCOIN PRICE , BITCOIN FUTURE in doubt http://youtu.be/eO-yrpQpIT8 What is NAMECOIN BITCOIN'S First Fork http://youtu.be/oBkhPhu3_B4 ... Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss Gemini brothers: Exchange, Finance, Bitcoin, BTC, Investments 2020 Dr. Sameer Islam, MD 25,012 watching Live now Don't Talk to the Police - Duration: 46:39. In this video I go through the steps on how to setup a namecoin wallet and generate a wallet address. http://dot-bit.org/Main_Page What is typed into config.conf. An introduction to the worlds first decentralized domain name system. This has the potential to create freedom on the internet world-wide! Please share in order to spread the word! http ... Namecoin (ℕ or NMC) is Bitcoin's First Altcoin - The cryptocurrency for decentralized .BIT domains.

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